Non-Luminous zone: It is the region of                     Fire Extinguisher
complete combustion. This is the zone of
complete combsution (as there is plenty of                     It is a portable device that discharges a jet
oxygen present around the candle).                              of water, foam, gas, or other material to
                                                                extinguish a fire.
Blue zone: Just at the base of the flame you
                                                               Different types of Fire Extinguishers are
will observe a "bluish hue". This is due to the
                                                                Water and Foam, Carbon Dioxide, Dry
incomplete burning of carbon dioxide resulting
                                                                Chemical, Wet Chemical, Halogenated,
in the formation of carbon monoxide.
                                                                Dry Powder, Water Mist and Cartridge
Flame colorants                                                 Operated Dry Chemical.
Color           Chemical                                   Match
Carmine         Lithium chloride
(Dark Red)
                                                               It is a tool for starting a fire.
Red             Strontium chloride or Strontium
                nitrate                                        Modern matches are made of small
Orange          Calcium chloride                                wooden sticks or stiff paper.
Yellow          Sodium chloride (table salt)                   Safety Matches can be struck only against
                or Sodium carbonate
Apple Green     Borax (Sodium Borate)
                                                                a specially prepared surface.
Green           Copper(II) sulfate, Boric Acid                 Strike-Anywhere Matches can be used
Blue            Copper(I) chloride, Butane                      on any suitably frictional surface.
Violet          3 parts Potassium sulfate, 1                   Electric matches are ignited fire
                part Potassium
                nitrate (saltpeter)                             electrically and do not make use of heat
Purple          Potassium chloride                              from friction.
                                    ELECTROCHEMISTRY
It is the study of systems in which electricity plays a role in the changes that occur during a reaction.
Oxidation-Reduction            Reaction      (Redox        ELECTROLYSIS
Reaction)
                                                               It is a process by which electric current is
    It is a type of chemical reaction that                     passed through a substance to effect a
     involves a transfer of electrons between                   chemical change.
     two species.                                              It is used extensively in metallurgical
    Redox reactions are common and vital to                    processes, such as in extraction
     some of the basic functions of life,                       (electrowinning)           or     purification
     including photosynthesis, respiration,                     (electrorefining) of metals from ores or
     combustion, and corrosion or rusting.                      compounds and in deposition of metals
    Oxidation is the process in which                          from solution (electroplating).
     electrons are donated by a reactant.                      An electrolyte is a substance containing
    The electron acceptor reactant is called as                free ions which are the carriers of electric
     oxidizing agent,                                           current in the electrolyte.
    Reduction is the process in which                         A direct current (DC) supply provides
     electrons are gained by a reactant                         the energy necessary to create or discharge
    The electron donor reactant is called as                   the ions in the electrolyte.
     reducing agent.
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