Aqua Regia
    It is a mixture of hydrochloric acid (HCl) and nitric acid (HNO3) at a ratio of either 3:1 or 4:1.
    It is a reddish-orange or yellowish-orange fuming liquid.
    The term is a Latin phrase, meaning "king"s water".
    It dissolves the noble metals gold, platinum, and palladium. It will not dissolve all noble metals.
     e.g. iridium and tantalum are not dissolved.
    It is also known as Royal Water, Nitro-Muriatic Acid (1789 name by Antoine Lavoisier).
                         COAL, PETROLEUM and FLAMES
Natural Resources                                         Types of Coal
It is anything that people can use which comes              Type          % of    Used as
from nature.                                                              C
                                                            Anthracite    90      space heating
There are two types of natural resources:                   Bituminous    80      fuel in steam-electric
                                                                                  power generation
                                                            Lignite       70      fuel for electric power
Inexhaustible Natural Resources: Resources
which do not exhaust and which are available                Peat          60      domestic fuel
in plenty in nature are known as inexhaustible
natural resources. For example – air, sunlight,
etc.                                                      Charcoal
Exhaustible Natural Resources: Resources                      It is a light, black residue, consisting of
which get exhausted and are not available in                   carbon and any remaining ash, obtained by
nature in plenty and are known as exhaustible                  removing water and other volatile
natural resources. They take longer to get                     constituents from animal and vegetation
replenished. For example – coal, petroleum,                    substances.
forest, minerals, etc.                                        It is usually produced by slow pyrolysis,
                                                               the heating of wood or other substances in
Coal                                                           the absence of oxygen.
    It is a black coloured stone-like material.          Lamp Black is a velvety black powder and
    It is a combustible, sedimentary, organic            used in ink, printer"s ink, black paint, carbon
     rock, which is composed mainly of                    papers, etc.
     carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
    It is used to produce electricity in thermal         Carbon Black is black, finely divided pellet
     power stations.                                      or powder. It is used in tires, rubber and plastic
    It gives carbon dioxide when burnt in air.           products, and coatings.
                                                          Petroleum or Rock oil or Crude oil
                                                          It is naturally occurring flammable liquid
                                                          consisting of a complex mixture of
                                                          hydrocarbons. Various usable substances are
                                                          obtained from petroleum.