Catalysts and Catalysis                                 E.g. Manufacture of ammonia from N2
                                                         and H2 in presence of Iron (Fe) as catalyst.
  Catalysis is the process by which some                N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) + Fe (s) → 2NH3 (g)
   substance is added to a reaction in order to
   make the reaction occur more quickly.            Some Important Reaction Process and the
  Catalyst is the substance that is added to       Catalyst Used
   produce the result.
                                                               Process                   Catalyst
Homogeneous catalysis                                 Making ammonia               Iron
                                                      Manufacturing ghee           Nickel
                                                      from vegetable oil
  It is a reaction involving a catalyst where
                                                      Conversion of milk into      Lactose
   the catalyst is in the same phase as the           curd
   reactants.                                         Making synthesis             Nickel
  E.g. Oxidation of Sulphur dioxide to               gas (carbon monoxide
                                                      and hydrogen)
   Sulphur trioxide in presence of Nitric
                                                      Catalytic cracking of gas    Zeolite
   oxide as catalyst.                                 oil
   2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + NO (g) → 2SO3 (g)              Making Phenol and            Sulfuric acid
                                                      propanone
Heterogeneous catalysis                               Reforming of naphtha         Platinum and
                                                                                   rhenium on zeolite
  It is a catalyst where the phase of the
   catalyst is different from the phase of the
   reactants.
                                 ACID, BASE and SALT
Acid
  The word acid, comes from a latin word           Types of Acid
   ‘acere’ which means ‘sour’.
                                                    Natural acid or organic acid are the acids
  Acidic substances contain acids and hence
                                                    which are basically present in food. e.g. acetic
   have a sour taste. e.g. orange juice, curd,
                                                    acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, etc.
   lemon juice, etc.
  It turns blue litmus paper red.                  Mineral acid or inorganic acid are the acids
  The most common acids are: Hydrochloric          prepared from mineral and used in various
   acid (HCl), Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4), etc.         laboratory processes. e.g. hydrochloric acid,
                                                    sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc.
Properties of Acid
                                                    Organic Acids & Source
1. corrosive in nature.
2. good conductors of electricity.                    Name of Acid                  Source
3. It has pH less than 7.                           Acetic acid           Vinegar
4. It yields hydrogen ion (H+), when                Ascorbic acid         Guava, amla
   dissolved in water.                              Citric acid           Lemon, Orange & other
                                                                          citrus food
                                                    Lactic acid           Sour milk, Curd
                                                    Methanoic acid        Ant sting, Nettle sting
                                                    Oxalic acid           Tomato
                                                    Tartaric acid         Tamarind
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