Catalysts and Catalysis E.g. Manufacture of ammonia from N2
and H2 in presence of Iron (Fe) as catalyst.
Catalysis is the process by which some N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) + Fe (s) → 2NH3 (g)
substance is added to a reaction in order to
make the reaction occur more quickly. Some Important Reaction Process and the
Catalyst is the substance that is added to Catalyst Used
produce the result.
Homogeneous catalysis Making ammonia Iron
Manufacturing ghee Nickel
from vegetable oil
It is a reaction involving a catalyst where
Conversion of milk into Lactose
the catalyst is in the same phase as the curd
reactants. Making synthesis Nickel
E.g. Oxidation of Sulphur dioxide to gas (carbon monoxide
Sulphur trioxide in presence of Nitric
Catalytic cracking of gas Zeolite
oxide as catalyst. oil
2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) + NO (g) → 2SO3 (g) Making Phenol and Sulfuric acid
Heterogeneous catalysis Reforming of naphtha Platinum and
rhenium on zeolite
It is a catalyst where the phase of the
catalyst is different from the phase of the
ACID, BASE and SALT
The word acid, comes from a latin word Types of Acid
‘acere’ which means ‘sour’.
Natural acid or organic acid are the acids
Acidic substances contain acids and hence
which are basically present in food. e.g. acetic
have a sour taste. e.g. orange juice, curd,
acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, etc.
lemon juice, etc.
It turns blue litmus paper red. Mineral acid or inorganic acid are the acids
The most common acids are: Hydrochloric prepared from mineral and used in various
acid (HCl), Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4), etc. laboratory processes. e.g. hydrochloric acid,
sulphuric acid, nitric acid, etc.
Properties of Acid
Organic Acids & Source
1. corrosive in nature.
2. good conductors of electricity. Name of Acid Source
3. It has pH less than 7. Acetic acid Vinegar
4. It yields hydrogen ion (H+), when Ascorbic acid Guava, amla
dissolved in water. Citric acid Lemon, Orange & other
Lactic acid Sour milk, Curd
Methanoic acid Ant sting, Nettle sting
Oxalic acid Tomato
Tartaric acid Tamarind