   Its properties are Sparingly soluble in             Van Der Waals’ Force / Interaction
    water, not forming ions, largely soluble in
    non-polar solvents, High Melting and                    It is the attraction of intermolecular forces
    boiling points, Stable, Non conductor,                   between molecules.
    rigid and directional bond.                             It is the weakest of all intermolecular
   e.g. Ammonium Ion (NH4+)                                 attractions between molecules.
                                                            With a lot of Van der Waals forces
                                                             interacting between two objects, the
                                                             interaction can be very strong.
                                                        Metallic Bond
                                                            It is the force of attraction between
                                                             valence electrons and the metal ions.
                                                            It is the sharing of many detached
Hydrogen Bond
                                                             electrons between many positive ions,
   It is the electrostatic attraction between               where the electrons act as a "glue" giving
    polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen                 the substance a definite structure.
    (H)     atom      bound     to    a    highly           It is formed between electropositive metal
    electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N),               atoms of same or different elements.
    oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences                  It is also considered as highly delocalized
    attraction to some other nearby highly                   covalent bond.
    electronegative atom.                                   E.g. The metal atoms Na, Cu, Ag, Fe etc.
   It tends to be stronger than van der Waals               are bound to each other in their crystals by
    forces, but weaker than covalent bonds or                metallic bond.
    ionic bonds.
   It is two types; inter-molecular (between
    two molecules) and intra-molecular
    (within a molecule).
                                    Types of Chemical Reactions
         Reaction                         Definition                        Formula & Example
  Synthesis or              Two or more simple substances             A + B → AB
  Combination               combine to form a more complex            2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
                            substance.
  Decomposition or          A compound is broken into smaller         AB → A + B
  Analysis                  chemical species.                         2H2O → 2H2 + O2
  Single replacement or     A single uncombined element               A + BC → AC + B
  Substitution              replaces another in a compound.           Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
  Double replacement        The anions and cations of two             AB + CD → AD + CB
  or Metathesis             compounds switch places and form          NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 +
                            two entirely different compounds.         AgCl
  Acid-Base Reaction        double displacement reaction that         The H+ ion in the acid reacts with
                            occurs between an acid and a base.        the OH- ion in the base, causing
                                                                      the formation of water.
                                                                      HA + BOH → H2O + BA
  Combustion                A hydrocarbon combines with               This kind of reaction is the
                            oxygen. The products of combustion        burning of naphthalene.
                            are always carbon dioxide and water.      C10H8 + 12O2 → 10CO2 + 4H2O
  Oxidation-Reduction       The oxidation numbers of atoms are        2S2O32− + I2 → S4O62− + 2 I−
  or Redox Reaction         changed. It may involve the transfer
                            of electrons between chemical
                            species.
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