Its properties are Sparingly soluble in Van Der Waals’ Force / Interaction
water, not forming ions, largely soluble in
non-polar solvents, High Melting and It is the attraction of intermolecular forces
boiling points, Stable, Non conductor, between molecules.
rigid and directional bond. It is the weakest of all intermolecular
e.g. Ammonium Ion (NH4+) attractions between molecules.
With a lot of Van der Waals forces
interacting between two objects, the
interaction can be very strong.
It is the force of attraction between
valence electrons and the metal ions.
It is the sharing of many detached
electrons between many positive ions,
It is the electrostatic attraction between where the electrons act as a "glue" giving
polar groups that occurs when a hydrogen the substance a definite structure.
(H) atom bound to a highly It is formed between electropositive metal
electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), atoms of same or different elements.
oxygen (O) or fluorine (F) experiences It is also considered as highly delocalized
attraction to some other nearby highly covalent bond.
electronegative atom. E.g. The metal atoms Na, Cu, Ag, Fe etc.
It tends to be stronger than van der Waals are bound to each other in their crystals by
forces, but weaker than covalent bonds or metallic bond.
It is two types; inter-molecular (between
two molecules) and intra-molecular
(within a molecule).
Types of Chemical Reactions
Reaction Definition Formula & Example
Synthesis or Two or more simple substances A + B → AB
Combination combine to form a more complex 2H2 + O2 → 2H2O
Decomposition or A compound is broken into smaller AB → A + B
Analysis chemical species. 2H2O → 2H2 + O2
Single replacement or A single uncombined element A + BC → AC + B
Substitution replaces another in a compound. Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2
Double replacement The anions and cations of two AB + CD → AD + CB
or Metathesis compounds switch places and form NaCl + AgNO3 → NaNO3 +
two entirely different compounds. AgCl
Acid-Base Reaction double displacement reaction that The H+ ion in the acid reacts with
occurs between an acid and a base. the OH- ion in the base, causing
the formation of water.
HA + BOH → H2O + BA
Combustion A hydrocarbon combines with This kind of reaction is the
oxygen. The products of combustion burning of naphthalene.
are always carbon dioxide and water. C10H8 + 12O2 → 10CO2 + 4H2O
Oxidation-Reduction The oxidation numbers of atoms are 2S2O32− + I2 → S4O62− + 2 I−
or Redox Reaction changed. It may involve the transfer
of electrons between chemical