#### Kerala PSC General Science Book Study Materials Page 260

Book's First PageAs the volume goes up, the temperature also of each individual gas present. Each gas is goes up, and vice-versa. assumed to be an ideal gas. Gay-Lussac"s Law: The Pressure n Ptotal pi p1 p2 .... pn Temperature Law i 1 It states that the pressure of a given amount of Where , p1 , p2 , ...., pn represent the partial gas held at constant volume is directly pressure of each component. proportional to the Kelvin temperature (absolute temperature). Graham"s Laws of Diffusion and Effusion PT Graham"s Law of Diffusion P or k T It states that, the rate at which gases diffuse is or P1 P2 inversely proportional to the square root of T1 T2 their densities. Diffusion is the rate at which two gases mix. As the pressure goes up, the temperature also goes up, and vice-versa. 1 Rate diffusion density Avogadro"s Law: The Volume Amount 1 Rate diffusion Law MM It states that equal volumes of all gases at the Graham"s Law of Effusion same temperature and pressure contain the equal number of molecules. It states that, the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of Vn either the density or the molar mass of the gas. or V k n Effusion is the rate at which a gas escapes Ideal Gas Equation or Combined gas laws through a pinhole into a vacuum. 1 1 It is formed by the combination of the three Rate effusion density MM laws (Charle’s, Boyel’s and Gay-Lussac’s law), and shows the relationship between the Ideal and Real Gases pressure, volume, and temperature: Ideal gases follow gas laws in all PV nRT conditions of temperature and pressure. Dalton"s law of partial pressures Real gases follow gas laws only at high temperature and low pressure. It states that the total pressure exerted by a mixture of gases is the sum of partial pressure 259

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