```As the volume goes up, the temperature also            of each individual gas present. Each gas is
goes up, and vice-versa.                               assumed to be an ideal gas.
Gay-Lussac"s Law:               The     Pressure                  n
Ptotal   pi  p1  p2  ....  pn
Temperature Law                                                 i 1
It states that the pressure of a given amount of       Where ,          p1 , p2 , ...., pn represent the partial
gas held at constant volume is directly                pressure of each component.
proportional to the Kelvin temperature
(absolute temperature).                                Graham"s Laws of Diffusion and Effusion
PT                                                    Graham"s Law of Diffusion
P
or  k
T                                                  It states that, the rate at which gases diffuse is
or
P1 P2
                                                inversely proportional to the square root of
T1 T2
their densities. Diffusion is the rate at which
two gases mix.
As the pressure goes up, the temperature also
goes up, and vice-versa.                                                     1
Rate diffusion 
density
Avogadro"s Law:          The Volume Amount                               1
Rate diffusion 
Law                                                                      MM
It states that equal volumes of all gases at the       Graham"s Law of Effusion
same temperature and pressure contain the
equal number of molecules.                             It states that, the rate of effusion of a gas is
inversely proportional to the square root of
Vn
either the density or the molar mass of the gas.
or V  k n
Effusion is the rate at which a gas escapes
Ideal Gas Equation or Combined gas laws                through a pinhole into a vacuum.
1              1
It is formed by the combination of the three           Rate effusion                 
density            MM
laws (Charle’s, Boyel’s and Gay-Lussac’s
law), and shows the relationship between the           Ideal and Real Gases
pressure, volume, and temperature:
      Ideal gases follow gas laws in all
PV  nRT
conditions of temperature and pressure.
Dalton"s law of partial pressures                            Real gases follow gas laws only at high
temperature and low pressure.
It states that the total pressure exerted by a
mixture of gases is the sum of partial pressure
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