Melting (Melting Point) Element
It is the change of state from solid to An element is a substance consisting of
liquid. atoms which all have the same number of
Melting Point : It is the temperature at protons - i.e. the same atomic number.
which a solid melts. It decreases in the It can only be changed into other elements
presence of impurity. The melting point of using nuclear methods.
ice is 0°C or 32°F. In the earth"s crust, oxygen (47 %) is the
most abundant element, followed by
Evaporation (Boiling Point) silicon (28 %) and aluminum (8 %).
It is the change of state from liquid to gas. There are 118 elements that have been
Boiling Point : It is the temperature at identified, of which the first 94 occur
which a liquid evaporates. Boiling point of naturally on Earth with the remaining 24
water at normal condition is 100°C or being synthetic elements.
212°F. On the Periodic Table, there are three
major types of elements known as Metals,
Freezing Point Non-Metals, and Metalloids.
Metals are generally shiny, malleable, and
It is the change of state from liquid to solid. hard. Metals are also good conductors of
Water freezes at 0°C or 32°F. electricity. e.g. Gold, Silver, Iron, etc.
Chemical Classification of Matter Non-metals do not conduct heat or
electricity very well. Non-metals are
Pure Substance typically brittle and are not easily molded
into shapes. e.g. Hydrogen, Carbon, etc.
A material that is composed of only one Metalloids share characteristics of both
type of particle; examples of a pure metals and non-metals and are also called
substance include gold, oxygen and water. semimetals. Metalloids are typically semi-
It can be either an element or a compound, conductors, which mean that they both
but the composition of a pure substance insulate and conduct electricity. e.g.
doesn’t vary. Silicon, Boron, etc.
Atom is the smallest amount of an
element. It is composed of a dense core Elements with Atomic Numbers 113, 115,
called the nucleus and a series of outer 117 and 118 were discovered in 2016.
shells occupied by orbiting electrons. The Named as Ununtrium (Uut), Ununpentium
nucleus, composed of protons and (Uup), Ununseptium (Uus) and
neutrons, is at the center of an atom. Ununoctium (Uuo) respectively. These
Protons have a positive electric charge elements were discovered by Russian-
while neutrons are neutral. American team of scientists at the Joint
Molecule is two or more atoms that are Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna
chemically joined together. The diatomic and Lawrence Livermore National
molecules are (H2) Hydrogen, (N2) Laboratory in California.
Nitrogen, (O2) Oxygen, (F2) Fluorine,
(Cl2) Chlorine, (I2) Iodine and (Br2)