It is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of
                               MATTER AND ITS STATES
Matter                                                      The inter-molecular force of attraction for
                                                             liquid matter is weaker than solid matter.
    Matter is anything that has mass and                   e.g. mercury, bromine, water, milk
     occupies space. When a substance goes
     from one state of matter to another, the            Gas
     process is called a change of state, or                Gases are matter having neither a fixed
     phase change.                                           shape nor a fixed volume. They are very
    Two major categories of classification of               easy to compress.
     matter are physical classification and                 Not only will a gas conform to the shape
     chemical classification.                                of its container but it will also expand to
    Physical Classification: Solid, Liquid, Gas             fill the container.
     and Plasma                                             The inter-molecular force of attraction for
    Chemical Classification : Pure Substances               gaseous matter is negligible.
     and Mixture                                            e.g. oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium
Physical Classification of Matter
                                                            A plasma is an ionized gas, a gas into
    Solids are matter having fixed shape, fixed             which sufficient energy is provided to free
     volume and are almost impossible to                     electrons from atoms or molecules and to
     compress.                                               allow both species, ions and electrons, to
    Solids are composed of particles which are              coexist.
     very near to each other.                               Plasmas are electrically conductive,
    It can only change their shape by force, as             produce magnetic fields and electric
     when broken or cut.                                     currents, and respond strongly to
    e.g. Iron, cobalt, zink, nickle, gold, silver,          electromagnetic forces.
     radium etc.                                         Bose–Einstein condensate
Liquid                                                      It is a state of matter of a dilute gas of
                                                             bosons cooled to temperatures very close
    Liquids are matter having a fixed volume                to absolute zero (that is, very near 0 K or
     but no fixed shape – they take the shape of             −273.16 °C). Under such conditions, a
     the container. Liquids are very difficult to            large fraction of bosons occupy the lowest
     compress.                                               quantum state, at which point macroscopic
    Liquids are composed of higher energy                   quantum phenomena become apparent.
     particles which overcome their mutual                  This form of matter was predicted in 1924
     forces     of    attraction    and      move            by Albert Einstein on the basis of the
     independently.                                          quantum formulations of the Indian
    The volume is definite if the temperature               physicist Satyendra Nath Bose.
     and pressure are constant.