#### Kerala PSC General Science Book Study Materials Page 47

Book's First PageFLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS A = area c = specific heat e = efficiency F = force h = depth Kavg= average molecular kinetic energy L = heat of transformation l = length M = molecular mass m = mass of sample n = number of moles p = pressure Q = heat transferred to a system T = temperature U = internal energy V = volume v = velocity or speed vrms = root-mean- square velocity W = work done on a system y = height a = coefficient of linear expansion m = mass of molecule r = density p = p0 + rgh F Q = ncDT p= Fbuoy = rVg A DU = Q + W A1 v1 = A2 v2 pV = nRT DU = ncV DT 1 3 W p + r gy + r v 2 = const. K avg = kB T e= 2 2 QH Dl = al 0 DT 3RT 3k BT TH - TC vrms = = Q = mL M m ec = TH Q = mcDT W = - pDV WAVES AND OPTICS d = separation f = frequency or focal length h = height L = distance M = magnification m = an integer n = index of refraction R = radius of curvature s = distance v = speed x = position l = wavelength q = angle v = fl 1 1 1 d sin q = ml + = c si s0 f n= mlL v h s xm » M = i =- i d n1 sin q1 = n2 sin q2 h0 s0 n2 R sin qC = f = n1 2 WAVES AND OPTICS E = energy f = frequency E = hf = pc K = kinetic energy K max = hf - f m = mass h p = momentum l= p l = wavelength DE = ( Dm ) c 2 f = work function 46

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