FLUID MECHANICS AND THERMAL PHYSICS
   A = area                                 c =      specific heat                   e = efficiency
   F = force                                h =      depth                           Kavg= average molecular
                                                                                              kinetic energy
   L   = heat of transformation             l   =    length                          M = molecular mass
   m   = mass of sample                     n   =    number of moles                 p = pressure
   Q   = heat transferred to a system       T   =    temperature                     U = internal energy
   V   = volume                             v   =    velocity or speed               vrms = root-mean-
                                                                                              square velocity
   W = work done on a system                y =      height                          a = coefficient of
                                                                                              linear expansion
    m = mass of molecule                    r =      density
p = p0 + rgh                                    F                                           Q = ncDT
                                           p=
Fbuoy = rVg                                      A                                          DU = Q + W
A1 v1 = A2 v2                              pV = nRT                                         DU = ncV DT
            1                                       3                                            W
p + r gy + r v 2 = const.                 K avg =     kB T                                  e=
            2                                       2                                            QH
Dl = al 0 DT                                        3RT       3k BT
                                                                                                 TH - TC
                                          vrms =          =
Q = mL                                                M         m                           ec =
                                                                                                    TH
Q = mcDT                                  W = - pDV
                                           WAVES AND OPTICS
   d   = separation                           f    =  frequency or focal length      h    =   height
   L   = distance                             M    =  magnification                  m    =   an integer
   n   = index of refraction                  R    =  radius of curvature            s    =   distance
   v   = speed                                x    =  position                       l    =   wavelength
   q   = angle
v = fl                                    1      1     1                                    d sin q = ml
                                              +     =
     c                                    si s0        f
n=                                                                                                mlL
     v                                            h      s                                  xm »
                                          M = i =- i                                                d
n1 sin q1 = n2 sin q2                            h0      s0
          n2                                    R
sin qC =                                   f =
          n1                                     2
                                           WAVES AND OPTICS
                          E  =  energy
                          f  =  frequency                            E = hf = pc
                          K  =  kinetic energy                       K max = hf - f
                          m  =  mass                                      h
                          p  =  momentum                            l=
                                                                          p
                           l = wavelength
                                                                     DE = ( Dm ) c 2
                           f = work function
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