presence of the emperor, he finally retired to Persia.
Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah Founder of the Bahmani kingdom with
Gulbarga as his capital, he was originally an officer in Decan in the
employment of Muhammad bin Tughluq. During his reign (1347–1358), he
extended his control overall the territory from the Wain Ganga in the north to
the Krishna in the south. His kingdom consisted of four provinces (tarafs),
viz. Gulbarga, Daulatabad, Berar and Bidar. His reign is known to us from a
contemporary account, Burhan-i-Maasir.
Alauddin Hussain Shah Founder of the Hussain Shahi dynasty of Bengal
with Gaur as the capital, he ruled for 24 years (1493–1518).
Alam Khan Third son of Bahlul Lodhi and uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi, he
joined Daulat Khan Lodhi in inviting Babur to invade India.
Alamgir II Son of Jahandar Shah (8th Mughal emperor), he was made the
16th Mughal emperor (1754–59) by the powerful wazir, Ghazi-ud-din Imad-
ul-Mulk.
Alberuni Originally a native of Khiva in Central Asia, he came to Ghazni
and then visited India in the wake of Mahmud’s raids. Abu Rihan
Muhammad was his original name, but became famous as ‘Alberuni’,
meaning the ‘Master’. Being a great scholar himself, he learnt Sanskrit and
made a thorough study of Indian sciences and philosophy. His famous work,
Tariq-i-Hind or Kitab-i-Hind, is a truly scientific treatise and gives us an
accurate account of India on the eve of the Turkish conquest of India.
AI-Hajjaj The Arab governor of Iraq during the caliphate of Walid, he sent
three expeditions to Sind to conquer it. But only the last one under his deputy
and son-in-law, Muhammad bin Qasim, succeeded in defeating King Dahir in
the Battle of Raor (AD 712) and established Arab rule in Sind.
AI-Masudi An Arab visitor to the Pratihara kingdom in AD 915 during the
time of Mahipala I, he praised the competence of Pratihara cavalry.
Alexander of Epirus He is referred to as ‘Alikasuddara’ by Asoka in his
Major Rock Edict XIII.
Ali Adil Shah I The fifth ruler of Bijapur, he combined with Rama Raya of
Vijayanagar in invading Ahmadnagar (1558) but later joined the other
Muslim rulers in the combined      attack of Vijayanagar and its defeat in the