community of the Muslims in India. It was first conferred on Hasan Ali Shah
who claimed descent from the Prophet through his daughter.
Ahalya Bai The widowed daughter-in-law of Malhar Rao Holkar of Indore,
who ruled the state between 1764 and 1795. Famous for her construction of
temples and public works like the Annapurna and Vishnu temples at Banaras
and Gaya respectively and the Grand Trunk road from Calcutta to Banaras.
She was succeeded by Tukoji Holkar.
Ahmad Shah Abdali Belonging to the Durrani clan of Afghanistan, he
initially worked under Nadir Shah. During his independent rule of
Afghanistan (1747–1773), he invaded India eight times, scoring a spectacular
victory over the Marathas in the third battle of Panipat (1761).
Ahmad Shah Wali The ninth Sultan of the Bahmani kingdom, he came to
power by murdering his brother Firoz Shah Bahmani. Transferred the capital
from Gulbarga to Bidar.
Ahmad Shah The greatest ruler (1411–41) of the Sultanate of Gujarat, he
founded the city of Ahmadabad near the old Hindu town of Aswal and made
it his capital.
Ahmad Nizam Shah Bahri Founder of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, he built
the city of Ahmadnagar and made it his capital.
Ahsan Shah. Jalaluddin One of the governors of Muhammad bin
Tughluq, he rose in rebellion and founded the Sultanate of Madurai in 1335
which was, however, annexed by the Vijayanagar ruler in 1377.
Ajatasatru Son of Bimbisara, he was the second ruler (516–480 Be) of the
Haryanka dynasty of Magadha. He conquered the Lichchhavi state, defeated
the Kosala king (Prasenjit) and married his daughter. The First Buddhist
Council was held at Rajagriha during his reign.
Ajit Singh The posthumous son of Raja Jaswant Singh of Marwar, he was
imprisoned by Aurangzeb as an imposter but was rescued from Delhi by the
Rathors under Durgadas. The Rathors, supported by the Ranas of Mewar,
fought against the Mughals for the cause of Ajit till 1709 when Bahadur Shah
I finally recognised him as the ruler of Marwar.
Akbar (Prince) Third son of Aurangzeb, born to Dilras Bano Begum, he