Hali or Bonded agricultural labourer of western India.
Kamiya Bonded agricultural labourer of eastern India.
Manamdar Holder of land tenure under the zamindars (jenmis) in
Kerala. During the term of the tenure (usually 12 years)
the kanamdar paid the jenmi a lower rent than other
tenants. At the beginning of the tennhe paid the jenmi a
lump sum (the kanam) and the rent he had to pay was
accordingly reduced. The kanamdar either cultivated the
land himself or let them out to other tenants such as
Khudkasht A peasant who was a permanent resident of the village
and had ownership rights of his lands and implements and
paid land revenue to the state directly in Mughal India. In
Maharashtra he was called mirasdar (holder of miras
lands), and in Rajasthan as gharuhala or gaveti.
Korfa A tenant with certain customary rights in his land in
Muzarian Share-cropper in Mughal India.
Nattar A person belonging to the local ruling class and
dominating local land and people in Tamil Nadu.
Pahi A peasant who was basically an ‘outsider’ but cultivated
the rented lands in a village either while staying in the
neighbouring village or by staying in the same village in
Mughal India. In Maharashtra he was known as upari.
Patnidar Holder of a patni or undertenure in a zamindari in some
parts of eastern India (e.g. Burdwan dist.).
COMMERCIAL SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES
Cartaze A system in which every Indian ship sailing to a
System destination not reserved by the Portugese for their own