native rulers so that those areas would not be subjected
to Maratha raids.
Jizya A religious tax paid by all the zimmis (non-Muslims) in
an Islamic state to the government.
Kharaj Land revenue in the Muslim ruled states of medieval
Khums Traditionally one-fifth share of the state in the war
booty and treasure troves, mines, etc., but became four-
fifths from the time of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
Sair or Sayir Taxes other than land revenue; mostly transit duties.
Sardeshmukhi An additional levy of 10 per cent on those lands of
Maharashtra over which Marathas claimed hereditary
Zakat A religious tax paid by all the wealthy Muslims in an
Islamic state for the maintenance of their unfortunate
Bargadar Share cropper in eastern India. Having the status of a
tenant-at-will, he occupied the land only as long as the
Bhagdar Partner or shareholder of a joint village in some parts of
western India. Also called patidars and narwadars.
Grantidar Person holding land tenure (granti) directly under the
government or the zamindars in some parts of eastern
India (e.g. Jessore District). In other parts of eastern India,
these tenure-holders were known by different names such
as jatedars in Rangpur District, hao-ladars in Bakaraganj
District, gatchdars in Purnea District and mandals in
Midnapur district. These people were mostly big tenure-
holders who depended considerably on hired labour for
the cultivation of their lands. Their origins were largely