native rulers so that those areas would not be subjected
                 to Maratha raids.
Jizya            A religious tax paid by all the zimmis (non-Muslims) in
                 an Islamic state to the government.
Kharaj           Land revenue in the Muslim ruled states of medieval
Khums            Traditionally one-fifth share of the state in the war
                 booty and treasure troves, mines, etc., but became four-
                 fifths from the time of Ala-ud-din Khalji.
Sair or Sayir    Taxes other than land revenue; mostly transit duties.
Sardeshmukhi     An additional levy of 10 per cent on those lands of
                 Maharashtra over which Marathas claimed hereditary
Zakat            A religious tax paid by all the wealthy Muslims in an
                 Islamic state for the maintenance of their unfortunate
Bargadar      Share cropper in eastern India. Having the status of a
              tenant-at-will, he occupied the land only as long as the
              landowner allowed.
Bhagdar       Partner or shareholder of a joint village in some parts of
              western India. Also called patidars and narwadars.
Grantidar     Person holding land tenure (granti) directly under the
              government or the zamindars in some parts of eastern
              India (e.g. Jessore District). In other parts of eastern India,
              these tenure-holders were known by different names such
              as jatedars in Rangpur District, hao-ladars in Bakaraganj
              District, gatchdars in Purnea District and mandals in
              Midnapur district. These people were mostly big tenure-
              holders who depended considerably on hired labour for
              the cultivation of  their lands. Their origins were largely