primarily oriented towards subsistence production and
customary distribution of the produce rather than to
production for the market. An important economic rationale
for its prevalence and persistence seems to be the security it
provided against the frequent famines.
REVENUE SYSTEMS AND PRACTICES
Batai It was one of the several methods of revenue calculation
and collection that were prevalent in medieval India. In
this system the crop was divided between the cultivator
and the government in different ways either before or
after the harvest. It was also known as the galla-bakshi
Bhagdari It was a system under which bhagdars (sharers or
partners) were collectively, not individually, responsible
for the payment of revenue to the government.
Dahsala A revenue system in which the average produce of
different crops as well as the average prices of the past 10
years were calculated and one-third of the average
produce in terms of cash was collected by the state as the
land revenue. It was introduced by Akbar in his 24th
Danabandi It was a revenue system in which not the actual crop (as in
the balai system) but the estimated crop was divided
between the cultivator and the government or its agents.
During the British period the zamindars under the
permanent settlement increasingly demanded payment of
their share of estimated crop not in kind, but in cash at
market rates of certain periods of year which proved
disastrous to the cultivators.
Ijara It was the practice of revenue farming. According to this
practice, the right to farm or collect revenue was granted