The Middle sector: 20,000 sq. km on either side of the Himalayan
  watershed and passes.
  The Western sector: 30,000 sq. km of high plateau country known as the
  Aksai Chin in the district of Ladakh of Jammu and Kashmir state,
  bordering Tibet and Xinjiang province of China.
Sino-Indian Relations in 1950’s
Under the Sino-Indian Agreement of 1954, otherwise known as the
Panchsheel, or the “Five Principles” agreement, India gave up all the extra-
territorial rights and privileges it enjoyed in Tibet, which it had inherited
from the British colonial legacy, formally recognising Tibet to be a region of
China. The five points agreed upon were:
Mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty
Mutual non-aggression
Mutual non-interference in each other’s internal affairs
Equal and mutual benefit working relationship
Peaceful co-existence
    By the agreement, it was recognized that six passes (Shipki La, Mana
Niti, Kungribinri, Darma, and Lipu Lekh) were border passes and “traders
and pilgrims of both countries” could travel by them . China’s success in
promoting these principles at the 1955 Bandung Conference helped China
emerge from diplomatic isolation. Unfortunately, by the end of the 1950s,
China’s foreign policy stance became more militant, and the Chinese went
back on this treaty within three months of its signing.
Border Conflict
The period from 1955 to 1960 was marked by increasing tension and clashes
on the border between India and China. Yet India failed to evolve and
formulate a comprehensive foreign policy vis-a-vis China, tending to treat
them as isolated incidents. The Chinese, wishing to consolidate their gains in
Tibet and the surrounding areas, implemented a plan for developing the
infrastructure in those regions. A ring road was constructed leading from
China to Tibet and from there via the Karakorum Range to Sinkiang,