paradigm and whether their application would have led to better outcomes
(than were actually achieved), not only in terms of ecological indicators but
also from the point of view of decent livelihood options for substantial
sections of the Indian population.
                 Nehru signing the First Five Year Plan in 1950
     The first plan (1951–56), in terms of a simple model, emphasised the
importance of raising the level of savings in the economy to accelerate the
rate of growth. However, as has been noted often enough, beyond this simple
model, it was a sort of a loose affair to put together a set of important projects
and not an analytically rigorous formulation in terms of coordinating
investment decisions in different sectors. The projects in infrastructure and
agriculture, in particular public irrigation, received emphasis. The fact that
the increase in national income during this plan actually surpassed the modest
target that the planners had set must have been a most pleasing and
encouraging experience for them, particularly in the light of the pre-
independence long-term record.
State-controlled Industrialisation           and Second Plan