and the French Declaration of 1789, as well as the special social needs and
problems of India’s population. For example, there are special provisions on
citizenship made necessary by the confusion and turmoil during India’s birth,
caused by partition into India and Pakistan. Also, there are rights directed at
lessening the negative social effects of the caste system and the religious and
social divide between Hindus. Muslims, and other religions making up
India’s population.
     The Constitution of India contains both civil, political, economic and
social rights. Many of the economic and social rights, however, were
included as directive principles. Under Article 37, the state (executive and
legislative branches) has a duty to apply these principles in making the law.
This duty cannot be enforced by the courts. However, it seems this duty and
the principles themselves are justiciable in the sense that the courts may take
note of them.