Another characteristic was their tendency to adopt pro-government political
attitudes. In fact, none of the communal groups or parties took part in the
struggle against foreign rule. Above all, they shied away from the specific
demands of the masses. They began as elite organisations and continued to
remain so.
Results
     •  Separatist groups weakened nationalist force due to divisions created
        by communal feelings.
     •  They led to the rise and growth of communal organisations.
     •  They even delayed the achievement of independence at least by a few
        years.
     •  The demand for a separate state for Muslims and hence the eventual
        partition of India was also due to them.
     •  Above all, separatist groups resulted in the new social problem of
        communal riots and the consequent senseless massacre of numerous
        innocent people, which has become almost a permanent feature of
        independent India.
RISE AND GROWTH OF MUSLIM LEAGUE
It was formed at Dacca in December 1906 by Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk who
also presided over its first session. After the Muslim deputation to Minto at
Simla in October 1906, Aga Khan had appealed to the Muslims to establish a
separate political organisation of their own. From 1906 to 1910 the party’s
central office remained at Aligarh, and was nothing more than an adjunct of
its educational institution. But after its headquarters had been shifted to
Lucknow, its political activities increased.
     Led by the Maulanas (Mohamed Ali and Shaukat Ali), Fazlul Haque, and
Mazharul Haque, and Fazli-i-Hussain, by 1912 it was joined by not only
many young Muslims but also some Muslim members of the Congress who,
however, retained their membership of the latter. During the Khilafat
Movement (1920-24), the party existed only nominally, holding its sessions
wherever the Khilafat Conference