came off it. Mujahirs trying to re-enter India were tried in five Peshawar
Conspiracy Cases (1922–27). In 1924 Muzaffar Ahmed, S.A. Dange, and
Nalini Gupta were jailed in the Kanpur Conspiracy Case. The Indian
Communist Conference was held in Kanpur in 1925. lts skeleton organisation
was soon taken over by determined Communists, and it was later
acknowledged to be the formal foundation. During 1925–27, four workers’
and peasants’ parties were set up. But these could achieve nothing till some
communists like Spratt arrived in India from Britain. On the whole they
followed a unity-cum-struggle policy with regard to Congress, criticising its
limitations but striving to build an anti-imperialist united front.
Second Stage (1929–34) It began with adoption of a new ultra-leftist
policy dictated by the Sixth Comintern. They launched an all-out attack on
Congress, leading to its isolation. The only success of CPI during this period
was the capture of the leadership of AITUC. It called for a general strike,
which succeeded, but government took its revenge by declaring CPI along
with a dozen other trade unions illegal.
Third Stage (1934–40) It began with the adoption of a policy by
communists to infiltrate into the Congress, CSP, Forward Bloc and different
students organizations. They gained large success, but their game could not
continue for long and were thrown out.
Fourth Stage (1941–41) World War II created another problem for CPI.
Russia asked Indian communists to support the British Indian Government.
Since they agreed to it, the party was declared legal by the government,
which, in turn, secured its loyalty. This again brought down image of party
among Indians.
SUBHAS CHANDRA BOSE AND THE INA
Early Life
Born in 1897, Subhas Chandra Bose was deeply influenced by the intellectual
and cultural milieu of Bengal at the turn of the century. In school and college
he was a pure humanitarian, social reformer and eventually a political