of a royal commission or any other agency with in more free terms of
reference and a broader scope of inquiry. But Lord Birkenhead, then
secretary of state for India, made the expected statement that action would be
taken on the basis of majority report.
Causes of their Rise
Radical sections were not satisfied with the ideals and attitude of Gandhi.
Agrarian and labour policies of the Congress also caused disappointment
among them. The Rise and growth of independent peasants’ and workers’
organizations was, in fact, partly due to a very moderate stand taken by the
Congress towards genuine grievances of peasants and workers.
    They began to be gradually attracted towards socialism. Though not all of
them were convinced of violent struggle, many of them seriously thought that
national independence should be pursued with ultimate object of establishing
a socialist or at least socialistic pattern of society.
    Adverse effects of World Depression gave a further boost to growth of
the left. Workers and peasants asked for better working conditions, while
government and employers were in no mood to do so. Progress of the USSR
also raised many hopes in them.
Congress Socialist Party (1934) was founded by Acharya Narendra Dev, Jai
Prakash Narayan and other Congressmen who broke away from INC in order
to establish a socialist order by non-violent means. CSP’s quick advance in
provinces like UP was illusionary. Much of the support was purely
opportunistic. Yet CSP’s propaganda did help in stimulating thinking in
Congress ranks and leadership on questions like radical agrarian reform,
problems of industrial labour, etc.