The Socialists and Bose’s followers charged the Communists with ‘treachery’
(the Communists did not participate in the revolt because of their support to
the Allies, including Soviet Union) and the latter charged the former with
‘fifth-columnist’ activity (because of the former’s plan to win freedom for
India with the help of the Axis powers).
Formation of Secret Societies in India and Abroad
Anushilan Samiti The Anushilan Samiti of Calcutta was formed by
Barindrakumar Ghosh, Jatindranath Banerji and Pramotha Mitter in 1902.
The Anushilan Samiti of Dacca was founded by Pulin Das in 1902. These
were the first revolutionary secret societies in Bengal.
Mitra Mela The Mitra Mela was formed by the Savarkar brothers in 1899.
This society was the first one in Maharashtra as well as in India.
Abhinava Bharat Ganesh Savarkar (elder brother of V. D. Savarkar)
founded the Abhinava Bharat in 1907.
Hindustan Republican Association The Hindustan Republican
Association was formed in 1924 by Sachin Sanyal and Jogesh Chandra
Chatterji. It was the first association at the all-India level.
Ghadar Party The Ghadar Party was formed by Har Dayal and Sohan
Singh Bhakna in 1913 in the USA (San Francisco).
Indian Independence League The Indian Independence League was
founded by Rashbehari Bose in 1942 in Japan.
Publication of Newspapers and Journals
The important newspapers and journals published during this period were:
     • Yugantar (1906) by Barindrakumar Ghosh and Bhupendranath Dutta
        in Bengal.
     • Sandhya (1906) by Brahmobandhab Upadhyay in Bengal.
     • Kal (1906) in Maharashtra.