the Congress, which finally resulted in the
practised by the government on the people and the eventual withdrawal of the
movement by the Congress.
The ceaseless efforts of Sir Tej Bahadur Sapru, Dr. Jayakar and others to
bring about a compromise between the government and the Congress
resulted in the signing of a pact by Gandhi and Lord Irwin, the Governor-
General, in March 1931. According to the Pact, the government agreed to:
Withdraw all ordinances and end prosecutions.
Release all political prisoners, except those guilty of violence.
Restore the confiscated property of the satyagrahis.
Permit peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops.
Permit the tree collection or manufacture of salt to persons residing within
a specific distance from the sea coast.
The Congress, in its turn, consented to the following:
To suspend the civil disobedience movement.
To participate in the second session of the Round Table Conference.
Not to press for investigation into police excesses.
Gandhi accordingly attended the second session of the Round Table
Conference in London, but its failure and revival of the oppressive policy
by the government led to the revival of the Civil Disobedience movement
in January 1932.
Comparison between Civil Disobedience
Movement and Non-Cooperation Movement
The Civil Disobedience movement (1930-34) was a step further over the
Non-cooperation movement (1921-22) in several respects:
• The former had an objective (the achievement of complete
independence) much greater than that of the latter (the remedying of
two specific ‘wrongs’ and the demand for a vague swaraj).
• As the very names of the movements suggest, the methods adopted
during the former (involving deliberate violation of law) were
evidently more militant