the same time Maulana Abul Kalam Azad who presided over the first All-
India Nationalist Muslim Conference at Allahabad pledged to develop among
Muslims a spirit of nationalism. Even earlier, at the Muslim League session
at Delhi in March 1929, leaders of the Khilafat Conference had supported the
Nehru Report. But the hall was stormed by some outsiders and supporters of
the Report were thrown out, some of whom decided to form the Nationalist
Initiative also came from the Congress, which was naturally anxious that
nationalist Muslims should have an independent organisation to support its
programme and the Nehru Report. Finally, Khaliquzzaman, some
representatives from the Punjab and Bengal, as well as Dr. Sheikh
Muhammad Alam formed the new Muslim Nationalist Party. Dr. M A Ansari
became its president and Khaliquzzam its secretary. Though Maulana Abul
Kalam Azad and Rafi Ahmad Kidwai did not oppose the formation of the
new party, they kept aloof from it. Almost simultaneously there was the
emergence in the North-West Frontier Province of the Khudai Khidmatgars
(Red Shirts) under Khan Abdul Ghafar Khan and Dr Khan Sahib, giving a
great boost to the nationalist Muslim cause.
Civil Disobedience Movement (1930–34)
Demands and Launching
Before starting the movement, Gandhi served on the British government an
‘Eleven Point Ultimatum’, which, though did not include the demand for
complete independence, represented the specific grievances of the Indians.
The ultimatum included the following demands:
• 50% reduction in land revenue.
• Abolition of the salt tax and government salt monopoly.
• Reservation of coastal shipping for Indians.
• Lowering of the rupee-sterling exchange ratio.
• Protection of indigenous textile industry.
• 50% cut in military expenditure.
• 50% reduction in expenditure on civil administration.
• Total prohibition of intoxicants.