demanding complete independence and were in favour of giving up the non-
violence dogma. The general mood of the people also was quite rebellious.
But unfortunately the whole movement was abruptly called off on 11th
February, 1922, at Gandhi’s insistence, following the news of the burning of
22 policemen by angry peasants at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of UP
on February 5, 1992.
The Indian Nationalist movement, for the first time in history, acquired a real
mass base with the participation of different sections of Indian society such
as peasants, workers, students and teachers, women, merchants and so on.
However, the big industrialists, capitalists, and zamindars still remained
    Secondly, the movement witnessed the spread of nationalism to the
remotest corners of the country.
    Thirdly, it transformed the Indian National Congress from a deliberative
assembly into an organisation for action, as evident from the various
programmes of the movement.
    Fourthly, it marked the height of Hindu-Muslim unity which could be
seen in the merger of the Khilafat movement with this movement.
    Finally, the movement demonstrated to a remarkable degree the
willingness and ability of the masses to endure hardships and make sacrifices
in the cause of national independence.
    Thus, though the movement failed to achieve any of one of its three main
demands, it was, nevertheless, a great step forward in the course of the Indian
nationalist movement.
Simon Commission (1927)
On November 8, 1927 the British government announced the setting up of the
Indian Statutory Commission under Sir John Simon. It consisted, apart from