• Boycott of government or semi-government schools, colleges, courts,
        elections to be held for the councils as suggested by the reforms of
        1919 and finally of foreign goods.
    • Surrender of titles and honorary offices and resignation from
        nominated seats in local bodies.
    • Refusal to attend government or semi-government functions.
    • Refusal by the military, clerical and labouring classes to offer
        themselves as recruits in Mesopotamia.
    Through these negative programmes, the Indians sought to refuse to
cooperate with the British in administering and exploiting their motherland.
    The positive programmes were:
    • Establishment of national schools and colleges and private arbitration
        courts, known as panchayals, all over India.
    • Popularisation of swadeshi and khadi by reviving hand-spinning and
    • Development of unity between Hindus and Muslims.
    • Removal of untouchability and other measures for Harijan welfare.
    • Emancipation and upliftment of women.
    The first two sought to remove the hardships caused to the people by the
negative programmes, while the last three ensured the participation of
Muslims, Harijans and women in the movement in order to make it a success.
Different Phases
The first phase (January–March, 1921) was marked by the boycott of
government schools and colleges by teachers and students, and of courts by
the lawyers.
    During the second phase (April–June, 1921) the focus was on raising
funds (Rs one crore) for the ‘Tilak Swaraj Fund’, enrolling common people
as members of the Congress, and installing charkhas (spinning wheels) on a
large scale.
    The third phase (July–November, 1921) was marked by a focus on the
boycott of foreign goods and on organisation of volunteer bands to organise a
nation-wide hartal on the eve of the visit of the Prince of Wales.
    The fourth phase (November, 1921–February, 1922) witnessed certain