establishment of swaraj.
    The movement, though had thoroughly roused e country, drew little
response from the British. Consequently, the All-India Khilafat Conference
held at Karachi on July 8, 1921 called upon Muslim soldiers in the Indian
army to quit their jobs.
    Gandhi’s decision to suspend the Non-cooperation movement early in
1922 sharply divided the Khilafatists. But it was the Kemalist revolution in
Turkey (1922) that took the wind out of the agitation’s sails and made it
Non-Cooperation Movement (1921–1922)
The main causes which led to the non-cooperation movement were:
    • Annulment of the Rowlatt Act and remedying the ‘Punjab wrong’, i.e.
        the British government should express its regret on the happenings in
        the Punjab, particularly in Amritsar.
    • Remedying the ‘Khilafat wrong’, i.e. the British should adopt a
        lenient attitude towards Turkey, which was one of the defeated
        countries in the first World War.
    • Satisfying the nationalist urge for swara) by offering a new scheme of
        meaningful and substantial reforms.
When the British refused to meet anyone of the main demands of the
Congress, an All-Party Conference as held at Allahabad in June, 1920 and a
programme of boycott of government schools, colleges and law courts was
approved. The Congress met in a special session in September, 1920 at
Calcutta, and agreed to start the non-cooperation movement, unless the
British met its demands. This decision ‘as further endorsed at its Nagpur
session held in December, 1920. The Congress, therefore, under the
leadership of Gandhi started the Non-Cooperation movement in right earnest
in January, 1921.