minutes, stopped only after the ammunition ran out.
      This massacre was not an isolated incident, and similar atrocities,
  though of lesser magnitude, were repeated at other places in the Punjab.
  But, on the other hand, it gave a tremendous impetus to the freedom
  struggle. Thousands of hitherto uncommitted people were drawn into the
  vortex of political activism, and the freedom movement had at last
  acquired a national character.
Khilafat Movement
Causes To begin with, it was caused by the resentment among Indian
Muslims over the defeat in World War I of the Ottoman Turkish empire.
     Secondly, the harsh terms of the Treaty of Sevres (1920) with Turkey
further added fuel to the fire. Thirdly, revolts in Arab lands engineered, at
British instigation, against the Sultan’s empire made the Muslim sentiments
in India to flare up. The whole movement was based on the Muslim belief
that the Caliph was the religious as well as the temporal head of the Muslim
world.
Background At the Muslim League’s 1918 annual session in Delhi, M.A.
Ansari demanded the restoration of the Arab lands to the Caliph. The
Congress under Gandhi echoed Ansari’s sentiments and gave full support to
the Muslim cause. In April-May 1919 the All-India Khilafat Conference was
brought into being. At a conference in Lucknow in September 1919, an All-
India Khilafat Committee was set up with Seth Chhotani of Bombay as
President and Maulana Shaukat Ali as Secretary.
     The Khilafat Conference held in Calcutta (February 1920) under the
presidentship of Maulana Abul Kalam Azad passed a resolution in favour of
non-cooperation and decided that a Khilafat day would be observed. In the
succeeding months a number of other meetings were held. When the Treaty
of Serves with Turkey was announced on May 15, 1920, the Central Khilafat
Committee meeting at Bombay announced its decision to start its non-
cooperation movement from August I.
Course The Nagpur session of the Congress (December 1920) passed a
resolution in support of the Khilafat movement. The Congress as well as the