His Civil Disobedience Movement was temporarily suspended by the
Gandhi-Irwin Pact and he attended the second session of the Round Table
Conference in England. On returning home, he resumed the movement but
was again imprisoned. When the Communal Award was announced in
August 1932, he started a fast and signed the Poona Pact. After release from
prison, he launched the weekly, Harijan ( 1933), which took the place of his
earlier paper, Young India (1919–32).
    Gandhi formally left the Congress in 1934, but continued, until his death,
to be the party’s moving spirit. Setting up a new ashram at Sevagram, near
Wardha, he made it the nerve-centre of his ‘constructive programme’ which
now came to include among others an active scheme of Basic Education. In
1940, he briefly assumed leadership of the Congress but gave it up the
following year.
    His last-bid call to win freedom became catch-words to Indians. But
before he could start the Quit India Movement he was put behind bars.
During his imprisonment in the Aga Khan Palace at Poona, his wife Kasturba
died. Released in 1944, he was engaged in the fruitless negotiations with
Jinnah for a political settlement. Gandhi’s influence in the counsels of the
Congress was, however, reduced after 1945.
Theory and Practice of Satyagraha
Satyagraha was based on truth and non-violence. It was influenced by
Thoreau, Emerson and Tolstoy. The literal meaning of satyagraha is holding
on to truth. He was anxious to distinguish satyagraha from passive resistance
(the method adopted by the extremists). There are different techniques of
satyagraha, such as fasting, hijrat or voluntary migration, strikes and hartals.
    In India the first time Gandhi was obliged to resort to satyagraha was in
the Champaran district of Bihar in 1917. For the second time, he put the
technique into practice in 1918 at Ahmedabad. In the same year, he launched
satyagraha for the third time in the Khera district of Gujarat. All these above
satyagrahas were launched to