the strength of the Governor General’s
    •  Under the new Act, there was greater elasticity in the size of the
       Council, while the number of Indians on it was raised from two to
       three.
Central Legislature
Bicameralism The legislature at the Centre was bicameral, consisting of
the Legislative Assembly, the lower house, and the Council of State, the
upper house.
    • Elections to the lower house were direct, the principle of communal
       or separate representation was recognised, while industry, commerce
       and land-holders were given special representation.
    • The Legislative Assembly was to have 145 members, although its
       strength could be increased, if necessary. At least five-sevenths of its
       total membership was elected, while one-third of the remainder were
       to be non-officials.
    • The representation of communities and special interests were broadly
       on similar lines to those followed for the provincial legislatures.
    • Except in special constituencies, elected members of both houses
       were returned through territorial constituencies on the basis of a high
       property franchise–qualifications in respect of the upper house being
       set much higher than those for the lower house.
Legislative Procedure As in the provincial legislatures, normal procedure
laid down that all legislative measures as well as the annual budget relating to
the Centre, should be passed by the central legislature.
    • But insofar as the Governor General’s ultimate responsibility was to
       the Parliament–and not to the central legislature–he was, in his
       individual capacity, empowered to certify bills and restore grants that
       had not been approved. He was also empowered to issue ordinances.
    • In the legislative field, the powers of the Council of State were
       coordinate with those of the Assembly. Since the government could
       always depend upon a majority of the Council to support its measures,
       the popular majority in the Assembly could not enforce its will
       against it in any legislative matter.
    • In the budget, a number       of items were non-votable, with the result