unintentionally committed themselves to the idea of a separate state for them.
Evaluation of Extremism
Achievements The main achievements of the extremists can be summed up
as follows:
    • First to demand swaraj or independence as a matter of the birth right
        of every Indian.
    • First to advocate the involvement of the masses in the freedom
        struggle, and thus broadened the social base of the nationalist
    • Evolved a higher concept of the forms of struggle (passive resistance)
        in order to improve the techniques of political action.
    • First to organise an all-India political movement, viz. the Anti-
        Partition movement.
Failures The extremists met with the following two main failures:
    • Though they believed in mass agitation, they failed to reach and
        mobilise the real masses, viz., the peasants, agricultural labourers and
    • Despite evolving a higher concept of the forms of struggle, they could
        not implement it fully.
Establishment of two Home Rule Leagues Two home rule leagues were
established, one by B.G. Tilak in April 1916 and the other by Mrs Annie
Besant in September 1916. The idea of starting a Home Rule League
originated with Mrs Besant as early as 1914 and she announced it publicly in
September 1915 though Tilak started the league before Besant could.
Main Causes for their Foundation The main causes for their foundation
were the nature of the Indian National Congress, which continued to remain
under the moderates as purely deliberative body unsuitable for any sustained
political agitation and the inspiration derived from the Irish Home Rule
movement. Mrs. Besant moved