hearted. This policy was relentlessly pursued throughout the freedom struggle
and knew no bounds particularly during the Anti-partition, Non-cooperation,
Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movements.
Policy of Appeasement of Reactionary Forces The British authorities felt
that the spread of modern education had been a major cause of the growth of
nationalism. So, they deliberately followed a policy of joining hands with the
socially and intellectually reactionary forces in order to prevent the spread of
modern ideas. Plans were now set afoot to impose greater government control
over education and to change its modern liberal character into a conservative
and reactionary one. Modern secular education was sought to be replaced by
a system based on religious and moral training. This new system was
reactionary as it did not cultivate a forward looking modern spirit among the
Indian youth.
Signed by the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League at Lucknow
in 1916, the Lucknow Pact marked an important step forward in the Hindu-
Muslim unity. The pact, which resulted largely due to Tilak’s efforts, enabled
the two political organisations to demand a common scheme of political
reforms from the British government and in fact succeeded in getting the
Montford Reforms. It was, however, based on the acceptance of the
communal electorates which was to prove disastrous for the country later.
    Against some minor losses in the Muslim majority provinces, in the
Muslim minority provinces they obtained a representation almost double of
what they would have got on a purely numerical basis. Similarly, at the centre
they obtained 1/3 representation in the legislative council from separate
Muslim constituencies. Subsequently, most of these principles as well as
other constitutional provisions provided for in the pact were incorporated
later in the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms of 1919.
    The significance of the pact was that it was considered to be a mutually
acceptable solution of the Hindu-Muslim problem. In retrospect, however, it
is necessary to realise that it contained within it seeds of the country’s future
discord and disunity. While the     Muslims became dissatisfied with the fixed