Morley however was quite clear as to what his objective was—‘If I were
attempting to set up a parliamentary system in India, or if it could be said that
this chapter of reforms led directly or indirectly to the establishment of a
parliamentary system in India, I for one would have nothing to do with it.’
The idea of India emerging as a self-governing colony was, Morley noted, ‘a
mere dream’.
British Policy of Divide and Rule
The British adopted different policies to counter and contain the rapidly
growing nationalist movement. They encouraged pro-English individuals like
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan and Raja Siva Prasad to start an anti-Congress
movement. Later, they fanned the Hindu-Muslim communal rivalry, first
among the educated Indians and, then, among the common people through
the introduction of communal electorates. They even exploited the
controversy around Hindi and Urdu and the cow-protection movement.
    Relentless efforts were made to create a split in the nationalist ranks by
adopting a more friendly approach towards the more conservative or
moderate sections. In the 1890’s efforts were made to separate the radicals of
yesterday like Justice Ranade and others from leaders such as Dadabhai
Naoroji who came to be considered extremists. Similarly, in the first two
decades of the 20th century moderates were sought to be played against
    The British also succeeded in turning the traditional feudal classes like
princes and zamindars against the new intelligentsia and the common people.
Princes were won over by the creation of the Chamber of Princes in 1921.
Zamindars were already won over by the introduction of the Permanent
Settlement. Attempts were also made to turn one caste against another even
among the Hindus. For example, the Communal Award of 1932 attempted to
treat Harijans as a separate political entity.
Policy of Carrot and Stick The British also followed the policy of
apparent concession or conciliation, on the one hand, and ruthless repression
on the other to check the growth of nationalism. Some were appeased by
making concessions in recruitment       of the Indian Civil Service, passing the