In science, Jagdish Chandra Bose, Prafulla Chandra Ray and others
• This movement created great enthusiasm amongst the people at large.
• The students boycotted government schools and colleges, organised
meetings and demonstrations, picketed the shops and burnt foreign
• Even the women jumped into the field and marched shoulder to
shoulder with men in processions, demonstrations, meetings, prabhat
pheris, picketing and bonfires. Thus, it encouraged nationalism and
patriotism amongst the people.
Origins of Surat Split
Shortcomings of Moderates By 1907, the moderate nationalists had
exhausted their historical role. Their achievements were impressive,
considering the low level of political consciousness and the immense
difficulties they had to face when they began. Their failures too were
numerous. They lacked faith in the common people, did not work among
them and consequently, failed to acquire any roots among them. Even their
propaganda did not reach them. Nor did they organise any all-India
campaigns and when, during 1905-07, such an all-India campaign did come
up in the form of the Swadeshi and Boycott Movement, they were not its
leaders. Their politics was based on the assumption that they would be able to
persuade the rulers to introduce economic and political reforms, but their
practical achievement in this field was meager. Instead of respecting them for
their moderation, British treated them with contempt.
British Policy of Divide and Rule The Government of India, headed by
Lord Minto as Viceroy and John Morley as the Secretary of State, offered a
bait of fresh reforms in the Legislative Councils and in the beginning of
1906, began discussing them with the moderate leadership of the Congress.
The moderates agreed to cooperate with the Government and discuss reforms
even while a vigorous popular movement, which the Government was trying
to suppress, was going on in the country. The result was a total split in the
Growing Differences between Moderates and Extremists There was a