be achieved only by working among the masses and their participation in
political affairs. They used popular festivals like Ganesh Utsav in
Maharashtra to spread the new awakening. They also used political agitations
like hartal and boycott of foreign goods. The prominent extremists were Lala
Lajpat Rai (1865–1928) from Punjab, Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak
(1856–1920) from Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal from Bengal, etc. They
together formed the famous trio, Lal-Bal-Pal, whose activities were a source
of alarm for the British. Tilak raised the famous slogan “Swaraj is my
birthright and I shall have it” and his paper Kesari in Marathi and Maratha
in English, became the mouthpiece of the new group of nationalists.
Launch of Anti-Partition Movement under Moderates On 16th October
1905, Bengal was partitioned by Curzon on the pretext of it being too big to
administer. Instead of dividing it on the basis of non-Bengali areas, the
division was on the basis of Hindus and Muslims. British thought that by
partitioning, they would succeed in dividing Hindu politicians of West and
East Bengal and increase Hindu-Muslim tensions. The tremor of partition
was felt throughout India and was regarded as an insult and challenge to
Indian nationalism. A movement was launched under the moderates. Militant
and revolutionary leadership took over in the later stages. Swadeshi and
Swaraj became the slogan of the common man and the whole of India was
drawn into the National movement.
Subsequent Developments Swadeshi implied that people should use only
the goods produced in India and boycott foreign goods. Swaraj on the other
hand, meant self-government. In 1915-16, under the leadership of Tilak and
Annie Besant, the Home Rule Movement was started. It demanded the grant
of self-government to India after the war. The growing nationalist feeling and
the urge for national unity produced two historic developments at the
Lucknow session of the Indian National Congress in 1916. First, the two
wings of Congress – Moderate and Extremist – were re-united. Secondly, the
Congress and the Muslim League sank their old differences and put up
common political demands before the government on the condition of
separate electorates. This unity, popularly known as the Lucknow Pact, based
on the two separate entities of Hindus and Muslims, left the way open to the
future resurgence of communalism in Indian politics.