in 1914.
    He edited a newspaper, called the Punjabee, and authored a book, viz.
Unhappy India. While leading a protest procession against the Simon
Commission he was severely wounded and died of injuries.
Bipinchandra Pal (1858–1932)
Popularly known as the ‘father of revolutionary thought in India’, he
belonged to the extremist trio of ‘Lal-Bal-Pal’. He began his journalistic
career when he started the Paridarsak (a weekly), and later became the
assistant editor of Bengal Public Opinion and the Tribune. Another
journalistic venture, New India, was started in 1901 to propagate his brand of
    Though Pal began his political career as a moderate, the impending
failure of the constitutional methods made him to drift away. After the
Partition of Bengal, Pal switched over to radical protest. Along with
Aurobindo Ghosh he was recognised as one of the chief exponents of a new
national movement revolving around the ideals of swaraj, swadeshi. boycott
and national education.
    The Bande Mataram, started in 1906 and edited by Aurobindo Ghosh as
well as Pal, became a powerful organ propagating the extremist’ ideology. In
1907 he was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment on account of his refusal
to tender evidence against Aurobindo during the latter’s trial in the ‘Bande
Mataram’ sedition case.
    After his imprisonment (March–August 1908) his political thinking took
on a different shape and form precipitating during his self-imposed exile
(1908–11) in England. During the remaining 20 years of his life, he did not
play any active role in the nationalist movement.
Aurobindo Ghosh (1872–1950)