the rise of extremism. The growth of western
hence receptive also to the objectives and policies of militant nationalism.
Besides, these educated Indians began to face the problem of unemployment
increasingly, which they realised could not be solved under British rule.
Realisation of the Social and Cultural Evils of British Rule There was a
strong realisation of the social and cultural evils of British rule. For instance,
in the field of education there was no balanced growth (primary and technical
education recorded insignificant growth), and also the British system of
education was held to be anti-national. Hence, efforts were made to promote
national education particularly from the time of Anti-Partition and Swadeshi
Movement (e.g. Rabindranath Tagore’s Shantiniketan and Satischandra
Mukherji’s Dawn Society in Bengal).
Existence of a Militant Nationalist School of Thought The existence of a
militant nationalist school of thought from the beginning of the nationalist
movement (represented by Rajnarain Bose and Ashwini Kumar Dutt in
Bengal and Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar in Maharashtra) and the emergence of
eminent extremist leaders in the beginning of the 20th century, e.g. Bal
Gangadhar Tilak in Maharashtra, Bipin Chandra Pal and Aurobindo Ghosh in
Bengal, Lala Lajpat Rai and Azit Singh (uncle of Bhagat Singh) in Punjab, T.
Prakasham and M. Krishna Rao in Andhra, V.O. Chidamabaram Pillai in
south Tamil Nadu, etc.
Influence of International Events Influence of certain international events
like the rise of Japan and its defeat of Russia in 1905 and the defeat of an
Italian army by the Ethiopians in 1896 (these events shattered the myth of
European invincibility), and the revolutionary movements in Ireland, Russia,
Egypt, Turkey and China and Boer war in South Africa (these events inspired
the Indians to step up their struggle for swaraj).
Immediate Cause: Curzon’s Rule