Growing Consciousness among the Indians
There was a growing consciousness among the Indians of the exploitative
character of the British colonial rule in India. The evil economic
consequences of British rule manifested themselves in the disastrous famines
between 1896 and 1900.
Failure of the Moderate Methods of Agitation
The failure of the moderate methods of agitation (meetings, resolutions,
petitions, and speeches in the legislative councils) to get anything substantial
from the British government led to the demand for more vigorous political
action and radical methods. The Indian Councils Act of 1892 was, for
instance, a great disappointment for the Indians.
Repressive Policies of the British Government
Some of the repressive policies of the British government also led to the rise
of extremism. For instance, the enactment of a law making it an offence to
preach nationalism (1898) and the enactment of the Indian Official Secrets
Act to restrict the freedom of the press (1904). Also, the imprisonment of
Tilak and some other editors for preaching nationalism (1897) and the
deportation of Natu brothers without trial (1897) aggravated the Indian
Realisation of the Need for Mass Action
The realisation of the need for mass action (by extending the movement to
the masses) and of the need for continuous political activity, instead of just
annual conferences, in order to attain swaraj or independence awakened the
people to radical action.
Growth of Self-respect among the Indians
Growth of self-respect among the Indians and their attainment of self-
confidence in their own capacity to govern themselves and to guide the future
of their own country generated the need for extremist actions. That is why
Tilak declared that swaraj was the birth right of every Indian and not a gift
which would be granted to the Indians by the British after the former had
passed all the tests prescribed by the latter.
Influence of Western Education and Ideas
Influence of western education and ideas, and the problems created by large-
scale unemployment also led to