classes only, not willing to involve the masses in the national movement.
Moreover, they wanted to attain political rights and self-government in a
prolonged stage-by-stage evolution, and not all of a sudden.
Achievements of Moderates
The main achievements of the moderates were:
• Creation of a wide national awakening among the people and training
them in the art of political work.
• Popularisation of the ideas of democracy and nationalism among the
• Exposition of the exploitative character of British imperialism and the
consequent evil results for India, for example Dadabhai Naoroji’s
• Creation of a common political and economic programme around
which the Indians gathered and waged political struggle.
• Providing a solid base and foundation on which the Indian national
movement built up momentum turn and vigour in later years.
• Providing impetus to the campaign against medieval obscurantism
• Succeeded in getting the Indian Councils Act of 1892 passed by the
Failures of Moderates
They failed to realise the importance of mass struggle, and hence their
confinement of the movement to the educated middle classes. Also most of
them failed to realise the true nature of the British for considerable time. It
was only by the end of the 19th century that they realised that their faith in the
fairmindedness of the British was misplacec Finally, they failed to get
anything substantial from the British through their constitutional methods.
GROWTH OF EXTREMISM (1906–1918)