East India Association         Dadabhai Naoroji           1866   London
  National Indian Association    Mary Carpenter             1867   London
                                 (biographer of
                                 Rammohun Roy)
  Poona Sarvajanik Sabha         S H Chiplunkar, G V        1870 Poona
                                 Joshi, M G Ranade,
  Indian Society                 Anandamohan Bose           1872 London
  Indian Association             Anandmohan Bose and        1876 Calcutta
                                 S N Banerji
  Madras Mahajan Sabha           G.S. Aiyer, M.             1884 Madras
                                 Anandacharlu, etc.
  Bombay Presidency              Pherozeshah Mehta,         1885 Bombay
  Association                    K.T. Telang,
                                 Badruddin Tyabji, etc.
Though a good number of nationalist organisations came into existence prior
to the foundation of the Indian National Congress, the most important among
them was the Indian Association of Calcutta, founded by Surendranath
Banerji and Anandamohan Bose in 1876. The association organised
agitations over several issues such as the reform of the system of the civil
service examinations, the protection of the rights of the tenants against the
zamindars and those of the plantation workers against the foreign tea
planters, etc. It also opened branches in different towns and villages of
Bengal, and in many cities outside Bengal. It even tried to become an all-
India body by convening two all-India conferences in 1883 and 85.
    All the pre-congress nationalist organisations have served a useful
purpose. Yet, all of them, including   the Indian Association of Calcutta, were