affected the interests of almost all sections of Indian society such as the
peasants, workers, middle classes particularly the educated section,
industrialists, etc. Even among those classes with vested interest in the
continuance of British rule such as the native rulers, landlords, zamindars,
village moneylenders, etc., there was some amount of resentment due to the
British racial superiority and discrimination.
Administrative and Economic Unification of India
The British had gradually introduced a uniform and modern system of
government throughout the country and thus unified it administratively. The
destruction of the rural and local self-sufficient economy and the introduction
of modern trade and industries on all-India scale had increasingly made
India’s economic life a single whole and interlinked the economic fate of
people living in different parts of the country. Besides, introduction of the
new means of transport and communications (Railways, Telegraph and Postal
system) had brought the different parts of the country together and promoted
mutual contact among the people, especially among the leaders. This
unification was, of course, done by the British in their own interest. Yet it did
facilitate the rise and growth of nationalist movement in India.
Spread of Western Education and Thought English language, which was
made the medium of instruction in schools and colleges in 1835, became the
language of the educated people of India, irrespective of their region. It
provided the best means of understanding and developing close contact
among them. These Indians came into contact with the Western ideas and
thought (Liberty, Equality, Democracy, Socialism, etc.), and some of them
had even direct contact with the Western Civilization. It is these English
educated Indians who developed, organised and led the nationalist
Introduction of Printing Press After its introduction in India, the Press
became the chief instrument through which the nationalist Indians spread the
message of patriotism and modern liberal ideas, and thus created an all-India
consciousness. From the second half of the 19th century a large number of
newspapers and journals were published in different regional languages of
India, apart from in English.