INDIAN FREEDOM STRUGGLE–
                   THE FIRST PHASE
GROWTH OF NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS
Indian Nationalism—Background
Censes of Indian Nationalism
    • Grievances of Indians due to the economic policies of the British.
    • Administrative and economic unification of India.
    • Spread of western education and thought through English.
    • Role of the press in spreading liberal ideas.
    • Role of socio-religious reformers.
    • Racialism of the British.
Reactionary regime of Lord Lytton (1876-80)
    • Second Afghan War
    • Delhi Durbar
    • Vernacular Press Act
    • Indian Arms Act
Ilbert Bill Controversy (1883) Ilbert bill presented during the viceroyalty
of Lord Ripon, aimed at enabling Indian judges to try Europeans as well. It
was vehemently opposed by the British who succeeded in getting it amended.
    India came under British rule mainly because, there was lack of the spirit
of nationalism in the modern sense in India at that time. The country was
divided into a number of independent states, and there was only regional
patriotism or loyalty to a local chief. The first attempt at a national revolt
against the British in 1857 failed because the whole country did not
participate in the revolt. So it was only after the failure of this revolt that
several factors or causes contributed to the rise and growth of freedom
struggle or of nationalist movement    in India.