Assertion (A): The faulty deployment of troops on the eve of the Revolt of
1857 may be considered as one of the main causes for the revolt.
Reason (R): There was only an insignificant number of European soldiers
compared to that of the sepoys at important military centres like Delhi and
Allahabad on the eve of the revolt.
Assertion (A): The British, though introduced a unitary or highly centralised
system of Government in India, continued to follow the policy of divide and
rule.
Reason (R): British refused to pay foreign service allowance to the Indian
sepoys while they were fighting in remote regions like Punjab or Sind.
Assertion (A): The British followed a policy of religious persecution of
Hindus and Muslims in the army in order to forcibly convert them into
Christians.
Reason (R): The British government gave full protection and encouragement
to the Christian missionaries in India.
Assertion (A): The immediate cause of the Revolt of 1857 was the
introduction of the new Enfield rifle in the British Indian army.
Reason (R): The sepoys were required to, before loading the cartridge into
the new rifle, bite off its end which was feared to have been greased with the
fat of cows and pigs.
Assertion (A): The Sikh army rendered valuable service to the British in the
suppression of the Revolt of 1857.
Reason (R): Sir Henry Lawrence, the chief commissioner of Punjab during
the revolt, failed to maintain peace in Punjab.
Assertion (A): The British remained as perpetual foreigners in India.
Reason (R): Some of the foreign conquerors of India, like Mughals and Delhi
Sultans, made India their home.
Assertion (A): The Indian middle and upper classes were totally excluded
from high administrative and military posts by the British.
Reason (R): Many of the traditional zamindars lost their zamindaris to the
new class of urban-based absentee landlords.
Assertion (A): In some places artisans and craftsmen participated in the