which prohibited the transfer of lands from peasants to moneylenders and the
mortgages for more than 20 years.
Champaran Satyagraha (1917) The main reason behind this movement
was the oppression of the peasants of Champaran (a district in Bihar) by the
European indigo planters through the system of tinkathia in which European
planters holding thikadari leases from the big local zamindars made peasants
cultivate indigo on part of their land at unremunerative prices and by
charging sharahbeshi (rent-enhancement) or tawan (lump sum compensation)
if the peasants wanted to be exempted from the obligation to grow indigo.
This led to refusal of the peasants either to grow indigo or to pay the illegal
taxes; arrival of Gandhi along with Rajendra Prasad, J. B. Kripalani, A. N.
Sinha, Mazhar-ul-Haq, Mahadev Desai, etc. in order to conduct a detailed
enquiry into the condition of the peasantry and to get their grievances
redressed; initial attempt of the government to suppress the movement;
success of Gandhi in forcing the government to appoint an enquiry committee
with himself as one of its members; acceptance of the recommendations of
the committee by the Government and the abolition of the tinkathia system.
Khaira Satyagraha (1918) Its course was as follows: failure of crops due
to drought in the Khaira district of Gujarat; refusal of the government to
exempt the peasants from the payment of land revenue; launching of a no-
revenue campaign by the Khaira peasants under the leadership of Gandhi and
Vallabhbhai Patel; suspension of the land-revenue collection for the time
being by the government.
                     MOPLAH REBELLION (1921)
  Oppression and exploitation of the Muslim Moplah peasants of Malabar
  (Kerala) by the Hindu zamindars (Jenmis) and British government was the
  main cause of this revolt. Its major events were: outbreak of the rebellion
  in August 1921 (after a police raid on Tirurangadi masque in search of
  arms) and widespread attacks on police stations, public offices,
  communications and houses of oppressive landlords and moneylenders;
  total loss of control by the British over Ernad and Walluvanad taluks for
  several months; establishment of ‘Republics’ at several places by the
  Moplahs under leaders like Kunhammad           Haji, Kalathingal Mammad, Ali