21st March, 1858.
revolted and drove out their ruler, Sindhia) by Rani and Tantia; death of Rani
on 17th June, 1858 and recapture of Gwalior by Rose on 20th June.
Bareilly Its recapture by Campbell on 5th May, 1858.
Arrah Suppression of the Bihar movement under Kunwar Singh by
William Taylor and Vincent Eyre temporarily in August, 1857; escape of
Kunwar to Awadh and his return to Bihar in Apri, 1858, to fight his last battle
(he died on 9th May).
Banaras and Allahabad Recaptured by Neil in June 1857.
Central India The whole of central India and Bundhelkhand was brought
under British control by Sir Hugh Rose in the first half of 1858. But Tantia
Tope, after losing Gwalior, escaped to Central India and carried on Guerrilla
war for 10 months. Finally he was betrayed by Man Singh (a feudatory of
Sindhia) and was executed by the British on 18th April 1859. Nana Saheb,
Begam of Awadh, and Khan Bahadur escaped to Nepal in December 1858
and died there. General Bakht Khan went to Awadh after the fall of Delhi,
and died fighting the British on 13th May, 1859. Maulavi Ahmadullah was
treacherously murdered by Raja of Puwain in June, 1858.
Military Operations to Suppress the Revolt
Causes for the failure
Unsympathetic attitude and even hostility of many native rulers and their
ministers—Sindhia and his minister Sir Dinkar Rai, the Nizam and his
minister Sir Salar Jung, Holkar, Gulab Singh of Kashmir, Begam of Bhopal,
Sir Jung Bahadur (Prime Minister of Nepal), Raja of Jodhpur and other rulers
of Rajputana and many others.
Non-participation of Bengal, Bombay, Madras, western Punjab and
Rajputana. Unsympathetic attitude of modern educated Indians.
Hostility of moneylenders, merchants, a significance number of traditional
zamindars, and the whole new class of urban based absentee land-lords.
Weaknesses of the rebels—Lack of organisation, discipline, common plan of
action, centralised leadership, modern weapons and other materials of war;
Selfishness and cliquishness of the leaders, etc.
Strong points of British—Immense      resource, superior military weapons and