(by the Religious Disabilities Act of 1856), spread of western education, etc.;
disaffection caused by the official policy or taxing lands belonging to
temples, charitable institutions, mosques, etc. all of them alienated these
sections from British.
Grievances of the craftsmen, peasants and zamindars
Artisans and craftsmen—Destruction of village industries and handicrafts due
to the one-way free trade policy of the British.
Peasants—Loss of their lands to the moneylenders due to the land and land-
revenue policies of the British, particularly the ryotwari system, and their
system of law and administration (which favoured the moneylenders at the
cost of the peasants).
Traditional Zamindars—Many of them lost their zamindaris to the new class
of urban-based absentee landlords due to the introduction of the zamindari or
the permanent settlement and the strict manner of revenue collection by the
British.
Grievances of middle and upper classes
Due to their total exclusion from high administrative and military posts; ruin
of those persons who depended on Indian rulers’ patronage of arts and
literature.
Basic foreignness of Britishers
They fundamentally differed from the other foreign conquerors of India like
the Mughals or the Delhi Sultans, by not making India their home, and by
their racial superiority.
Military causes
Jolts given to the British armed strength by certain events like the First
Afghan War, Anglo-Sikh War, Crimean War and the Santhal Uprising;
combined with these, the disproportionate ratio of the sepoys to the
Europeans in the British Indian Army (6:1) and the faulty disposition of the