Abolition of titles and suspension of pensions: Dalhousie abolished the
titles of the Nawab of Camatic and the Raja of Tanjore, and refused to grant
the pension to the adopted son (Dhondu Pandit, better known as Nana Saheb)
of the last Peshwa (Baji Rao II) after the latter’s death in 1851. He also
announced in 1849 that the successors of Bahadur Shah II would have to
leave the Red Fort. Canning’s announced in 1856 that the successors of
Bahadur Shah were to be known only as princes and not as kings.
Grievances of sepoys
Discrimination in payment and promotions; mistreatment of the sepoys by
the British officials; refusal of the British to pay foreign service allowance
(batta) while fighting in remote regions such as Punjab or Sindh; religious
objections of the high caste Hindu sepoys to Lord Canning’s General Service
Enlistment Act (1856) ordering all recruits to be ready for service both within
and outside India (i.e. across the seas); encouragement given to the Christian
missionaries by the British army officers.
     All these led to disaffection among the sepoys which manifested itself on
a number of occasions in the form of mutinies before 1857. They were:
Mutiny of the sepoys in Bengal in 1764.
Vellore Mutiny in 1806.
Mutiny of the sepoys of the 47th Regiment at Barrackpur in 1824.
Mutinies of the 34th Native Infantry (N.I.), the 22nd N.I., the 66th N.I. and
the 37th N.I. in 1844, 1849, 1850 and 1852 respectively.
     All these mutinies occurred due to the above mentioned grievances
particularly the third and fourth grievances. And all of them were put down
by the British with terrible violence; the leaders were executed and the
regiments were mostly disbanded.
Grievances of orthodox and conservative people
Fear of the Indians (both Muslim and Hindu) due to the activities of the
Christian missionaries and the protection and encouragement given to them
by the British government; resentment of the conservative and orthodox
elements against the social reforms and humanitarian measures introduced by