Grievance of orthodox and
misrule                                    • Social reform & humanitarian
• Abolition of titles and pensions.
                                           • Modearnization of education,
                                           transport and communications
                                           • Official Policy of taxing
                                           religous lands.
                                           • Activities of the Christian
 Grievance of Sepoys                        Military Causes
• Mistreatment and discrimination;         •Exposure of British invincibility
                                           as a myth by a series of events.
• Refusal to pay batta.
                                           •Disproportionate ratio of
•Religious objections to Act of 1856. sepoys.
•Encouragement of missionaries
 Grievances of the Masses                   Immediate Cause
• Artisans and craftsmen                   • Introduction of new Enfield
                                           Rifle with greased cartridges.
• Peasants and traditional zamindars
 Basic Foreignners of British
• Different from other foreign