Kukis 19 Chiefs led preservation of independence of Manipur. It
by lasted for three years during which 4900 people
Khotinthang were killed.
Nagas Nagaland 1929- Jadonang The Heraka was a religious movement that got
33 and his transformed into a political one. Beginning from
neice, Rani the Zeliangrong tribes, they sought to establish
Gaidinliu inter-tribal solidarity and unity.
Chenchus Nallamala 1921– Hanumanthu Their revolt against increasing British control
Hills 22 over frorests.
THE 1857 REVOLT
History in Two Halves The lesson that the British drew from 1857 was
that caution must prevail: Indian traditions must be respected and the
assumed guardians of these traditions—priests, princes or landholders—were
to be conciliated under firm authoritarian British rule. Thus, British Indian
history in the 19th century is often divided into two halves, separated by the
great watershed of 1857: an age of ill-considered reform, followed by an age
of iron conservatism. Conservatism was eventually to provoke a different
form of reaction, the nationalism out of which modern India was to be born.
There are, however, serious difficulties in any interpretation of 19th century
Indian history that divides it into an age of reform that gave way under the
shock of rebellion, to an age of conservatism. This may in a very rough sense,
reflect the intentions of India’s British rulers, but what the British intended
and what they were able to achieve were often very different things.
Genesis of Disaffection In the first half of the 19th century, when the East
India Company still ruled India on Britain’s behalf, there was a heady
rhetoric of reform and improvement in some British circles. The aspiration of
Thomas Macaulay to foster “a class of persons, Indian in blood and colour,
but English in taste, in opinions, in morals and in intellect” is often quoted.
Less often quoted is his preceding sentence, in which he admitted that “it is
impossible for us, with our limited means, to attempt to educate the body of