1840, Alluri        Repeated revolts of the Koyas, the major ones
         Pradesh)      62,
Khonds   Khondmals 1846–     Chakra         The first two revolts, led by Bisayi, were put
         (Orissa)      48,   Bisayi         down with great difficulty by the British.
Santhals Rajmahal      1855– Sidhu &        Revolt of Santhafs and establishment of their
         Hills (Bihar) 56    Kanhu          own government (Jury, 1855); defeat of British
                                            under Major Burrough by Santhals; transfer of
                                            the disturbed area to the military and final
                                            suppression of the revolt by the end of 1856:
                                            creation of a separate district of Santhal
                                            Paraganas to prevent Santhafs from revolting
                                            again in future.
Naikdas  Panch         1858– Rupsingh       Revolt of Naikdas under Rupsingh in 1858 and
         Mahals        59 & Joria and       conclusion of peace between British and
         (Gujarat)     1868 Bhagat          Rupsingh in 1859; their revolt again in 1868, and
                                            establishment of a kingdom with Joria as the
                                            spiritual head and Rupsingh as temporal head;
                                            suppression of the revolt after the capture and
                                            execution of Rupsingh and Joria.
Kacha    Cacher        1882  Sambhudan      —
Nagas    (Assam)
Mundas   Chota         1899– Birsa Munda Foundation of a new religious sect, with Singh
         Nagpur        1900                 Bonga as the only true god, by Birsa (1895);
                                            British fears over Birsa’s preachings among
                                            Mundas, and arrest and imprisonment of Birsa
                                            (1895-97); release of Birsa and revival of his
                                            dpctrine (1898); revolt of Mundas and their
                                            attack of churches and police stations (1899);
                                            defeat of Mundas by British (Jan, 1900) and
                                            capture of Birsa (he died of cholera in jail in June
Bhils    Banswara      1913 Govind          It began as a purification movement, but later
         and                 Guru           developed into a political movement; failure of
         Dangapur                           their attempts to set up a Bhil Raj due to British
         (Southern                          armed intervention.
Oraons   Chota         1914– Jatra Bhagat Launching of a monotheistic movement by Jatra
         Nagpur        15                   in 1914 and its transformation into a redical
                                            political movement of drive away the British in
                                            1915; its suppression by British through