Bawre Nain; Rajkapoor’s Boot Polish, Shri-
Goel’s Vachan; Amiya Chakrabarty’s Seema; Prakash’s Baiju Bawra;
Hrishikesh Mukherjee’s Musasfir; Ramesh Saigal’s Phir Subah Hogi;
Savak Vachha’s Yahudi and B.R. Chopra’s Kanoon, Dhool Ka Phool and
Ek Hi Raasta.
    Colour films Aan and Jhansi Ki Rani were also released. Sohrab
Modi’s Mirza Ghalib (1954) became the first Hindi film to get the
President’s Gold Medal. S.K. Ojha’s Naaz (1954) was the first Hindi film
to have location work done abroad, in London and Cairo. Guru Dutt’s
Kaagaz Ke Phool was the first black and white Indian film to be made in
Cinemascope. Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, Dev Anand, Kishore Kumar,
Mahipal, Raj Kumar, Balraj Sahni and Shammi Kapoor were among the
leading heroes of the 50s while Sandhya, Vijayantimala, Nargis, Nutan,
Suchitra Sen, Waheeda Rehman and Asha Parekh were among the leading
heroines of the period.
    The 60s experienced the use of most melodious music in the Indian
films, which is difficult to be replicated. K. Asif released his Mughal-E-
Azam that broke all the previous records at the box-office. It was followed
by notable productions like Rajkapoor’s Jis Desh Mein Ganga Behti Hai,
Sangam, Gurudutt’s Sahib Bibi Aur Gulam, Dev Anand’s Guide; Bimal
Roy’s Bandini, S. Mukherji’s Junglee, Sunil Dutt’s Mujhe Jeene Do, Basu
Bhattacharya’s Teesri Kasam, K.A. Abbas’s Aasman Mahal (1965),
Pramod Chakravorthy’s Love in Tokyo, Ramanand Sagar’s Arzoo, Shakti
Samantha’s Aradhana, Hrishikesh Mukherji’s Aashirwad and Anand, B.R.
Chopra’s Waqt and Gumraah and Manoj Kumar’s Upkar.
    Raj Kapoor’s film Sangam popularised the trend for shooting on
foreign locales. During the 1960s, popular cinema had shifted its social
concerns towards more romantic genres. The period is also notable for a
more assertive Indian nationalism. Following the Indo-Pakistan wars of
1962 and 1965, the Indian officer came to be a rallying point for the
national imagination in films such as Sangam (Raj Kapoor, 1964) and
Aradhana (Shakti Samanta; 1969). Chetan Anand’s Haqeeqat (1964) was
a memorable war film of the decade. Hemant Kumar’s mystery thriller
Bees Saal Baad (1962) became a runaway hit.
    The Film Institute was started in Pune in 1960 on the former Prabhat
Studio premises. It coincided