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Kerala PSC Indian History Book Study Materials Page 1813Book's First Page
Indian Empire. In 1898, two Italians, of Nelson, Noah’s Ark and Call on the London Fire Brigade were exhibited. The first exposing of celluloid in camera by an Indian and its consequent screening took place in 1899, when Harishchandra Bhatvadekar (Save Dada) shot two short films and exhibited them under Edison’s projecting kinetoscope. Hiralal Sen and F.B. Thanawalla were two other Indian pioneers engaged in the production of short films in Calcutta and Bombay in 1900. Thanawalla made short films like Splendid New Views of Bombay and Taboot Procession in 1900, while Sen made his own short film Indian Life and Scenes in 1903. Short narrative films continued to be imported and shown in India. Some of these famous films were Life of Christ (1901), Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp (1902), Alibaba and 40 Thieves (1903) and Napolean Bonaparte (1904). Around 1902, J.F. Madan and Abdullah Esoofally launched their career with Bioscope shows of imported short films. The first cinema was established in 1900 in Madras by Major Warwick. In 1907 Jamshedjee Madan opened the Elphinstone Picture Palace in Calcutta. Madan’s early films were topicals of historic value like Great Bengal Partition Movement and Procession (1905), Delhi Durbar and Coronation (1911) and Cotton Fire at Bombay (1912). In South India, Madras’s first permanent cinema, the Gaiety, was built by R. Venkaiah and R.S. Prakash. In 1916 Universal Pictures set up Hollywood’s first agency in India. Silent Movies of India India began making silent feature films in early 20th century. In 1912, N.G. Chitre and R.G. Torney made the first silent feature film Pundalik, which was half British in its make. The birth of India’s first fully indigenous silent feature film took place on May 3, 1913, when Bhundiraj Govind Phalke, more popularly known as Dada Saheb Phalke, produced Raja Harishchandra. The film had titles in Hindi and English and was released at the Coronation Cinema, Bombay. Phalke followed with other feature films like Mohini Bhasmasur (1913), Satyavan Savitri (1914) and Lanka Dahan (1917), the last one being India’s first big box-office hit. Two new film companies, the Kohinoor Film Co. and Phalke’s Hindustan Cinema Films Co. were established in 1918.